Best / Evidence-based Practices – Finn Synopses - The John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety

Best / Evidence-based Practices – Finn Synopses

Focused Deterrence Initiatives: A Synopsis

Heidi S. Bonner, Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean (October, 2008)

Description

Focused deterrence – also known as “lever-pulling” – is a matter of enhancing the threat of criminal sanctions for the highest-risk offenders and deliberately communicating that threat in order to maximize its impact on offenders’ behavior. Research has repeatedly shown that a small number of offenders account for a disproportionately large volume of violent crime. Further, violence is often concentrated in specific neighborhoods. By focusing amplified enforcement efforts – pulling all of the available levers – on the individuals most likely to commit violent crimes (in the neighborhoods in which they are most active), and thereby increasing the threatened likelihood of their apprehension and/or the severity of the sanctions applied, law enforcement and other community actors can expect to deter criminal acts. It might also be possible to disrupt or reverse patterns of peer influence that draw youth into violence. A number of communities have implemented focused deterrence initiatives, and some of these interventions have been demonstrably effective in reducing levels of youth violence.

CeaseFire-Chicago: A Synopsis

Heidi S. Bonner, Sarah J. McLean, and Robert E. Worden (October, 2008)

Description

The term “Ceasefire” is widely associated with Boston’s “Operation Ceasefire,” which was a focused deterrence initiative conceived and implemented in 1996, and replicated (with some variations) in a number of other cities since then. Focused deterrence initiatives target high-risk offenders for enhanced enforcement, and notify the offenders that continued violence will evoke extraordinary enforcement actions, in order to more effectively deter the violence in which the targeted offenders are prone to engage. However, a number of other violence-reduction programs go by the name “Ceasefire,” and they are not focused deterrence initiatives. One of those, implemented by the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention (CPVP), differs from the Boston model in a number of respects, but it too has been favorably evaluated. We briefly describe the philosophy and theory behind CeaseFire-Chicago, describe the program components, and discuss the findings on its effectiveness.

Hospital-Based Violence Prevention Programs: A Synopsis

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean (October, 2008)

Description

Some violence prevention programs provide for interventions with victims of violence that commence at the point of their hospitalization. We might call these programs hospital-based, inasmuch as the hospital is the site at which would-be participants are identified and at which the intervention is initiated, even though many of the services that are provided are not delivered by or within the hospital. Research shows that patients admitted with intentionally inflicted injuries are at elevated risk of repeat violence, and one might speculate that they are also at elevated risk of perpetrating violence, in retaliation or more generally, and that in the immediate aftermath of a violent injury, victims would be especially receptive to behavioral change. Some programs that target this population for intervention have been effective in reducing their risk.

Tactical Patrol: A Synopsis

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean (October, 2008)

Description

Tactical patrol entails an increase in enforcement resources and activity, for a finite period of time, with a geographic focus – that is, targeting “hot spots” of crime – and (typically) an offense focus. Sometimes called directed patrol and sometimes called a police crackdown, interventions based on one or another variation of this theme have enjoyed demonstrable effectiveness.

Public Surveillance Cameras: A Synopsis

Sarah J. McLean and Robert E. Worden (April 2010)

Truancy Reduction: A Synopsis

Coming soon.

Compstat: A Synopsis

Coming soon.